The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
 
Volume-8, Special Volume, 2016
 

Professor Surendra Nath Chaturvedi--An endangered human species
S.V.S. Chauhan

Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India
*e-mail :
svsc071241@gmail.com
  ABSTRACT

Professor Surendra Nath Chaturvedi a well known botanist of the country was born at Mathura on 22nd April, 1926. He was brought up under the strict discipline of his father Late Sri Bisheshshwar Dayal Chaturvedi, Dy. Commissioner, Custom & Excise, Erstwhile Gwalior state and his elder brother Late Sri Education, Delhi. Prof. Chaturvedi had his earlier education starting from 7th class to M.Sc.

Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

Morpho-histological characterization and nutritional properties of prickly pear
(Opuntia ficusindica L. Mill)

L. Reale*, C. Fichera, V. Ferri, M. Cerri & F. Ferranti
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno
74, 06121 Perugia, Italy

*e-mail :
lara.reale@unipg.it
Received : 26.10.2015; Accepted : 16.11.2015; Published online : 01.01.2016

  ABSTRACT

Opuntia ficusindica (L.) is a large genus of succulent shrubs native to Mexico. In 16th century it was introduced into several continents and is now widely grown in the warmer parts of the world. It has been shown that the prickly pear fruit is very rich in vitamins, minerals, amino acids and in sugars. Another important compositional factor of prickly pear is the presence of pigments, such as betalains, which make the fruit and its products particularly attractive. Betalains are vacuolar pigments present in all varieties of reported O. ficusindica. Their main function in the plant is to attract animals for pollen transfer facilitating plant propagation and to protect against UV radiation. Two betalain derivatives are present in cactus-pears: betacyanin, which gives the red-purple colour, and betaxanthin, which gives a yellow-orange colour. These pigments have important antioxidant activities without toxic effects to humans. Given the considerable interest aroused by this species, the aim of our research was to study the morphological and cyto-histological characteristics of the fruit from two different varieties of the prickly pear typical of Sicily (Italy):” Sanguigna” and “Muscaredda” or “Sciannarina”.Some functional compounds of prickly pear such as the betalains, the carotenoids and chlorophyll (a and b) were also quantified. There were no cyto-histological differences between the fruits of the two considered varieties; instead the content of betacyanins and chlorophyll was very different.

Keywords : Opuntia ficusindica, fruit, betacyanin, chlorophyll
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

Antifungal activity of Jamarosa and Nagarmotha essential oils against Microsporum
gypseum
and Trichophyton rubrum

Manoj Kumar , Nawal Kishore Dubey & Ragini Tilak
1Laboratory of Herbal Pesticides, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University,
2
Varanasi-221005, India; Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

*e-mail :
nkdubeybhu@gmail.com
Received : 31.04.2015; Accepted : 04.06.2015; Published online : 01.01.2016
  ABSTRACT

In the present study, soil samples of 7 different public places in Varanasi, India were screened through hair baiting technique for the presence of dermatophytes. All the samples were found positive with dermatophytes includingMicrosporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. Thirteen essential oils (EOs) were isolated from different plant parts through hydro-distillation and were screened against two dermatophytes M. gypseum and T. rubrum for their antifungal activity. At 250 ppm, Jamarosa and Nagarmotha EO showed strong antifungal activity and selected for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungitoxic concentration (MFC) against M. gypseum and T. rubrum. The MIC of Jamarosa EO was found to be 100 ppm against both M. gypseum and T. rubrum and MIC of Nagarmotha EO was found at 250ppm against both test dermatophytes. The MFC of Jamarosa for M. gypseum and T. rubrum was found at 1000 and 500 ppm respectively. The MFC of Nagarmotha was not achieved up to 1000 ppm for test dermatophytes.

Keywords : Essential oils, Antifungal activity, Jamrosa, Nagarmotha.
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Sampling, baiting techniques and culture methods for the study of Watermoulds

S. K. Prabhuji*, Ausaf Ahmad , Gaurav K. Srivastava & Richa Srivastava
*Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Centre, M.G. Post Graduate College, Gorakhpur – 273 001, India
1Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow, India
*e-mail :
shaktiprabhuji@rediffmail.com
Received : 04.04.2015; Accepted : 06.06.2015; Published online : 01.01.2016

  ABSTRACT
The isolation and procuring pure cultures of the watermoulds has been a tedious process and therefore, requires special attention. Various methods of sample collection and isolation of watermoulds from water bodies and soils together with pathogenic conditions have been reviewed. Culture methods and techniques for obtaining unifungal contaminant-free cultures have also been discussed.
Keywords : Sampling and culture techniques, isolation methods, watermoulds.
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Characterization of West Bengal isolate of Rice Tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV)

Meenu Singh
Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering and Technology IILM-AHL, 17 & 18, Knowledge
Park 2, Greater Noida-201306, India

*e-mail :
meenu.singh@iilm.ac.in
Received : 16.11.2015; Revised : 07.12.2015; Accepted : 25.12.2015; Published online : 01.01.2016

  ABSTRACT

Tungro is a devastating disease of rice caused by rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). It is transmitted by Nephotettix virescens commonly known as green leaf hopper (GLF). Present investigation was undertaken to study the plasmid blue script having movement protein and coat protein clones (PCR amplified products). These were isolated and digested with different restriction enzymes and were separated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. Gel was blotted on nitrocellulose membrane and Southern blots were hybridized with different radio labeled probes of different fragments of RTBV genome. Autoradiography was also carried out. Based on present hybridization studies it is concluded that both the putative clones are identical and they carry some part of coat protein and some part of movement protein encoding gene.

Keywords : Rice, RTBV, Tungro, Molecular characterization, Autoradigraphy
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

Screening of rhizobial isolates for the production of plant growth promoting bioformulations by using different carriers

Archana Yadav , Jyoti & Harish Chandra
1Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur 208 024, India
2 High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, H.N.B.Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar,
Garhwal 246174, India

*e-mail :
hreesh5@gmail.com
Received : 11.06.2015; Accepted : 16.08.2015; Published online : 01.01.2016

  ABSTRACT

The irrational use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide increase the production but they are deleterious to environment indirectly directly. So, there is utmost need of alternate method or fertilizer to combat the fertility problem of soil and crops. In environment there is presence of microorganism which can increase the soil fertility as well as production of some inhibitory substance which inhibit the growth of harmful phytopathogens. In the present investigation five carriers- sawdust, charcoal, rice bran, wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were evaluated for the production of bioinoculants. The bacterial population wasdetermined up to three month storage, other parameter such as shoot length, root length, number  of nodule, fresh weight and dry weight was also evaluated. Out of tested carrier sawdust was proved to be the best carrier in maintaining the bacterial population and also useful in enhancement of the growth of Cicer arientinum compared to control after the addition of inoculants. The finding of this study suggests that sawdust based carrier was much better than other carrier based inoculants taken in the study.

Keywords : Bioformulation, C. arientinum, carriers
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 

Effect of gamma radiation on aflatoxin and physiochemical properties of Arachis

hypogea L.

Parul Bishnoi1 & Harish Chandra2*
1
Department of Microbiology, School of life Science, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra-282002, India;
2
High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar-246174
Garhwal, India

*e-mail :
hreesh5@gmail.com
Received : 20.05.2015; Accepted : 11.07.2015; Published online : 01.01.2016

  ABSTRACT

Aflatoxins are cosmopolitan in distribution and incur several health related problem such as liver cancer, neurological disorders and teratogenic effect in human as well as animals. Several researcher suggested different method of aflatoxin detoxification such as chemical and physical method. In present study effect of different gamma radiation dose ranging from 0.1-15kGy was investigated against total aflatoxin and physiochemical properties of peanut. It was found that gamma radiation are effective in aflatoxin reduction as well as at certain dose radiation does not affect fatty acid profile, oil percentage, Acid value and saponification value. Maximum reduction in total aflatoxin was observed at 10 kGy radiation.

Keywords : gamma radiation, Arachis hypogea, Aflatoxin
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

Use of natural and safe alternatives methods to control postharvest diseases of grapes: A review

Pooja Singh & NN Tripathi
Bacteriology & Natural Pesticide Laboratory, Department of Botany, DDU Gorakhpur University
Gorakhpur-273009, Uttar Pradesh, India

*e-mail :
pooja.ddu@gmail.com
Received : 08.04.2015; Accepted: 10.06. 2015; Published on line: 01.01.2016

  ABSTRACT

Table grapes are subject to mycobial decay during postharvest handling worldwide. Grape berries are rich in water and nutrients; during storage of fruit high sugar content of grapes are ideal substrates for the development of pathogenic microorganisms, establishing processes of rot with consequent losses of product ranging from a minimum of 30 - 40 % in countries with advance technologies, to over 50% in developing countries. Rotting caused by the fungi such as Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicilium, Mucor, Rhizopus, is the main factor reducing the post harvest quality of table grapes. The standard practices to control the postharvest decay of table grapes worldwide are the physical control like hot water treatment, variations in temperature, UV-C irradiation, pressure or changing atmospheric composition, to fumigate the grapes with chemicals or botanicals, coating the grapes by chitosans or salts and their synergistic applications. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of past and current knowledge about the postharvest management of grapes with physical, chemical, biological and botanical means and to identify research avenues that can facilitate the implementation of these technologies as preservatives of table grapes. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent technology for the management of postharvest decay of table grapes because alternative and integrative strategies like use of biological antagonists, natural compounds, controlled atmosphere storages are need of the day.

 

Keywords : Grapes, Post harvest diseases, Biological, Botanical.
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

  Morphological and biochemical changes in the leaves of peach (Prunus persica Batsch) infected with an aphid (Brachcandus helichrysi Kalt.) and a fungus (Taphrinadeformans Berk. Tul.)

R .K. S. Rathore*
Department of Botany, R. B. S.College, Agra -282002, India

*e-mail :
rajeshksrathore@gmail.com
Received : 10.08.2015; Revised: 12.11. 2015; Accepted and Published on line: 01.01.2016

  ABSTRACT

A comparative morphological and biochemical changes in the leaves of peach (Prunus percsica Batsch) infested with an aphid (Brachcandus helichrysi Kalt.) and a fungus (Taphrina deformans Berk. Tul.) were recorded. In both aphid and fungal infected leaves the differentiation of mesophyll into palisade and spongy parenchyma was lost. The thickness of aphid infested leaves was reduced; while the thickness of fugal infected leaves increased considerably. Histochemical observations indicated reduction in the PAS reaction and total carbohydrates of insoluble polysaccharides in the infected leaves. Biochemical studies exhibited significant reduction in the quantity of chlorophylls, sugars, total proteins. There was difference in the quantity of various amino acids in healthy, aphid and fungal infected leaves with significant increase in proline in aphid infested leaves. On the other hand, quantity of total phenolics increased in infected leaves. It is concluded that loss in the quantity of various metabolites in the aphid infested leaves is largely due to sucking of sap from the phloem by their stylet, while in the fungal infected leaves the intercellular mycelium absorbs nutrients from the host cells by osmotic process.

 

Keywords : Prunus persica, aphid, leaf curl, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, PAS reaction, chlorophyll, sugars, proteins, amino acids, phenolics.

Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on insect induced leaf galls in Alstonia scholaris L. 

Pankaj Kumar*
Department of Botany, School of life Science, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra-282002, India
*e-mail :
pankajkanoongo@gmail.com
Received : Received: 10.09.2015; Revised: 11.11.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.01.2016
  ABSTRACT

Morphological, histopathological, histochemical and biochemical changes in the galled leaves of Alstonia scholaris R. Br. (Apocynaceae) infested by the insect Pauropsylla tuberculata Crawf. (Order: Homoptera) were recorded. The differentiation of mesophyll in palisade and spongy parenchyma was lost The cells adjoining the insect cavity undergo hypertrophy and hyperplasia and produce semi-globose, irregular in shape and dark and dry conical galls. The light (LM) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations showed that in mature galls are enclosed by a thick periderm. The differentiation of mesophyll into palisade and spongy parenchyma was completely lost and number of slightly enlarged chloroplasts increased. The gall cavity opens on the lower surface through an ostiole. The vascular bundles were reduced in size. A sclerenchymatous layer develops around mature gall cavity. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations indicated that cellulosic microfibrillar architecture of cell walls was lost in mature galls. The number and size of organelles, chloroplast in particular in infested galled leaves was reduced. The differentiation of grana and stroma was lost and the thylakoid membranes were thin and loosely arranged. The number of mitochondria and golgi complex along with rough endoplasmic reticulum and micro-bodies in the undifferentiated mesophyll cells was reduced. The histochemical localization of total carbohydrates of insoluble polysaccharide made by PAS reaction indicated the presence of suberin on the upper surface of mature galls. The undifferentiated mesophyll showed moderate or low intensity of the reaction. Mesophyll cells in mature galls showed marked reduction in total carbohydrate of insoluble polysaccharides (TCIP). The vascular tissues of galled leaves also showed reduction in the intensity of PAS reaction. The quantity of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b was significantly reduced in severely infested leaves. The quantity of total proteins in infested leaves was reduced. There was a spectrum of 9 amino acids (cystine, lysine, histidine, glycine, threonine, proline, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine) in the healthy and infested leaves. However, the quantity of cystine and lysine in galled leavesincreased, while the quantity of proline, histidine and phenylalanine was significantly reduced and quantity of glycine, threonine, proline, tyrocine, and tryptophan was also low but it was insignificantly. The quantity of total phenolics in the infested leaves increased gradually with the increase in the intensity of infestation. The quantity of total and non-reducing sugars was higher in infested leaves at all the stages of infestation and total biomass was lower in the infested leaves. 

Keywords : Pauropsylla tuberculata, thylakoids, mitochondria, PAS reaction, proteins, chlorophylls, proline, phenolics, sugars.
Volume : 8Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

Detection of aflatoxin in isolates of Aspergillus flavus and effect of ultraviolet Rays on its inactivation

Parul Bishnoi1 & Harish Chandra2*
1Department of Microbiology,School of life Science, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra-282002, India

2
High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar-Garhwal,
Uttarakhand, India

*e-mail :
hreesh5@gmail.com
Received : 12.04.2015. Received : 10.06.2015; Accepted : 06.07.2015; Published online : 01.01.2016

 

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus flavus is the most prominent fungi for the production of aflatoxin in food & feeds especially when storage conditions favor fungal growth. A. flavus sp. often produces Aflatoxin B & B but all the 1 2 strains of the A. flavus are not aflatoxigenic in nature. Aflatoxins are sensitive to UV irradiation, which may lead to the formation of photo degradation products. In order to kill microorganisms, the UV rays must actually strike the cell. The present study is focused on the elimination of aflatoxin producing fungi and the effect of ultra violet rays on aflatoxin inactivation or production in the strains. Ten different strains of A.flavus at sporulating stages were examined for the production of aflatoxin. Selected two aflatoxigenic isolates exposed to germicidal ultra violet rays at 265 nm to reduce the aflatoxin content in the fungi.Selection of the aflatoxigenic strains and the Effects of UV rays on aflatoxin production were analyzed byThin Layer Chromatography and determination of total aflatoxin content by ELISA.

Keywords : Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, UV rays
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

Sugar, amino acids and nitrate as nitrogenous source of fertilization influence growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Aspergillus species in hypersensitive response development of tobacco crop

Bansh Narayan Singh1,2 & Padmanabh Dwivedi1*
1 Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
221 005, India
2 Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005,
India

*e-mail :
pdwivedi25@reddiffmail.com
Received : 20.11.2015; Accepted : 11.12.2015; Published online : 01.01.2016

  ABSTRACT


The relationship between nutrient supplement and pathogen colonization on the leaf surface of plant was studied by measuring the colony forming unit. Data obtained indicate that the population of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Aspergillus species in plant was affected by exogenous supply of sugar and amino acids as feed, and further nitrate as nitrogenous source of mineral nutrition favoured hypersensitive response development. Carbon (20 mM sucrose) and amino acids (10 μM amino acids such as gluatamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, cystein and methionine) were used as exogenous supplements as feed along with pathogens. The abundance of colonization on the leaf surface of ammonium nutrient growing tobacco plants was high as compared to nitrate. Carbon and nitrogen sources were directly linked with maximum population sizes of bacteria and fungus on the leaf surface. Population sizes of bacteria and fungal pathogens in ammonium nutrient media capable to support were high and indirectly linked to disease resistance. However, nitrate growing plants had low population size with bigger role in hypersensitive response development, thus helping the plants against disease. It is hypothesized that sugars and amino acids are able to increase the severity of pathogens and nitrate nutrient was able to overcome the same through hypersensitive response development.
 

Keywords : Amino acid, Aspergillus species, Colony forming unit, Hypersensitive response, Sucrose, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

 
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

An efficient in vitro protocol for mass multiplication of Boucerosiatruncato-coronata Sedgewick (Apocynaceae): a rare and an endangered medicinal plant


A. Ugraiah, A. Srilakshmi & T. Pullaiah*
Department of Botany, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur-515 055. A.P. India.

*e-mail :
pullaiah.thammineni@gmail.com
Received : 14.01.2015; Revised: 18.08.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.09.2015

  ABSTRACT


 

An efficient and rapid method for in vitro propagation of Boucerosiatruncato-coronata,an endangered medicinal plant (Apocynaceae) was developed, resulting in shoot regeneration within 3 weeks of culture. Multiple shoots were regenerated from stem explants cultured on Murashige& Skoog (MS) medium containing 3% sucrose and supplemented with a range of BA (2.22-22.19μM), Kn (2.32-23.2μM) and IAA (0.57-2.85) concentrations. A 95% shoot response with a multiplication rate of five shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 13.32μM BA, 4.65μM Kn and 0.57μM IAA. Callus produced at the base of the explant on the same medium showed root organogenic potential. The in vitro regenerated shoots produced roots when transferred to half strength MS medium with auxins. The micropropagated plants were easily acclimatized within 2 months under greenhouse conditions when potted in soil, sand and manure (1:1:1; v/v)mixture. More than 85% survival with no observable morphological variations was obtained. The developed protocol provides a simple, cost-effective means for the conservation of endangered B. truncato-coronata by clonal propagation within a short time.


Keywords : conspecific density, floral offer, path analysis, pollination variability, size-dependent fecundity.

 
Volume : 8 Special Volume, 2016 Download PDF
 
 
 
 
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