The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
 
Volume-8, Number-1, Jan, 2016
  Professor S. N. Chaturvedi and my Agra Connections
H.Y. Mohan Ram
INSA Srinivasa Ramanujan Research Professor
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, 19, University Road, Delhi-110007, India

*e-mail : hymohanram@gmail.com
Received : 11.06.2015; Published on line: 01. 11. 2015
  ABSTRACT
Volume : 8(1) pp. 03 - 06, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Reproductive system of Diplopterys pubipetala (Malpighiaceae) plants from a savanna ecosystem
C.C.F. Possobom, S. R. Machado & E. Guimarães*
UNESP–Univ. Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, Campus de
Botucatu, C. Postal 510, Botucatu 18618-000, SP, Brazil.

*e-mail : eguimaraes@ibb.unesp.br
Received : 01. 06. 2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT


Diplopterys pubipetala
is a Neotropical Malpighiaceae species widely distributed in savanna and tropical semideciduous forests of Brazil. Its flowers are zygomorphic and show glands on calyx, corolla and androecium,
which have been related with the attraction, orientation and reward to neotropical oil collecting bees. Nevertheless, previous studies showed differences in the behavior of floral visitors, acting as pollinators or as oil robbers. Additionally, plants from distinct populations may show functional hermaphrodites or male-sterile flowers, the last producing seeds by agamospermy. These data suggest a variation in the reproductive system among populations of
D. pubipetala. So, the aims of this study were to determine the reproductive system of D. pubipetala plants from savanna population in order to confirm the existence of flexibility in the breeding system of this species and to identify the importance of floral visitors for seed set. For this we determined the pollen viability and stigma receptivity using conventional techniques in floral biology research; we also evaluated the morphology and size of pollen grains by anatomical sections of the anthers and the stigma surface by SEM; we performed field experiments to determine the mating system. In the studied area all the individuals of D. pubipetala showed flowers with high pollen viability and capability to develop seeds from outcrossing. The stigma receptivity was conditioned to the rupture of stigmatic cuticle, which depended on the bee activity.We also verified the efficiency of Monoeca bees in the pollen transportation and depositionon receptive surface of stigma. Our results indicated a predominance of allogamy with a strong dependence on biotic pollen vectors in D. pubipetala, although one plant in the study population showed mixed mating system, with seeds produced by agamospermy, self-pollination and cross-pollination. Our data confirm the existence of flexibility in the breeding system of Diplopterys pubipetala, with intra and interpopulational variation.

 

Keywords : agamospermy, bee-pollination, Monoeca, outcrossing, self-compatibility
Volume : 8(1) pp. 07 - 13, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Phenomenon of embryoidogeny as a basis for interdisciplinary synthesis of
knowledge in developmental biology
T. B. Batygina* & J. V. Osadtchiy
Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia
*e-mail : tb_batygina@mail.ru
Received : 02.03.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT

Nontraditional ideas on plant reproduction examined in this work are considered to be the result of the discovery of the embryoidogeny phenomenon, a new category of vegetative propagation. In light of data on flowering plants reproduction in situ, in vivo and in vitro, we firstly revealed that vegetative propagation is represented by two types: embryoidogenous and gemmorhizogenous, but not just one gemmorhizogenous, as previously considered. In the formation of a new individual there are not two pathways of morphogenesis, but three ones: embryogenesis, embryoidogenesis and organogenesis. These pathways and modes are universal both in nature and in the experimental conditions. This allowed us to distinguish the embryoidogeny phenomenon and to consider its role in the reproduction system of flowering plants. This phenomenon, which we first considered from the position of the theory and principles of reproduction, somatic and stem cells, has a great biological significance, importance to scientific progress and practical value. Its detailed analysis can become a basis for further integration and synthesis of knowledge leading us to understanding the internal mechanisms of functioning of the living systems at all levels of structural organization.

Keywords : embryoidogenesis, embryoid, gemmorhizogeny, stem cells, integrity, reliability system, primal
phenomenon.
Volume : 8(1) pp. 14 - 23, 2016 Download PDF
 
 

Self-incompatibility system in polyploid fruit tree species- A review

N. Makovics-Zsohár & J. Halász
Corvinus University of Budapest, Faculty of Horticultural Science, Department of Genetics and
Plant Breeding, 1118 Budapest, Ménesi út 44., Hungary

*e-mail : julia.halasz@uni-corvinus.hu
Received : 13.04.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT

Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization (inbreeding) by enabling the pistil to reject self-pollen. Fertilization of rosaceous fruit tree species is governed by gametophytic SI, which has a major effect on commercial fruit production by regulating fruit set proportion. The GSI systems are homomorphic type, which means that there are no morphological differences in the structure of flowers; the recognition of the genetically related individual is based on the interaction between pollen- and pistil-expressed genes. It is controlled by a single multi-allelic locus, called the S-locus. A female determinant gene encodes glycoprotein with ribonuclease (S-RNase) activity in the pistils, and the male determinant gene expresses a specific F-box protein only in pollen. Cultivars sharing different S-alleles must be interplanted in orchards; therefore information on the S-genotypes is necessary for commercial fruit growing and breeding. Breakdowns in the pollen or pistil genes resulted in self-compatible genotypes. Studies of the rosaceous tree fruit S-locus are primarily focused on diploid species, while information is hardly available for polyploid fruit trees despite the fact that polyploidy is a prominent feature of plant genomes. Characteristics of the self-incompatibility system in three polyploid rosaceous species including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, tetraploid), Chinese cherry (P. pseudocerasus, tetraploid) and European plum (P. domestica, hexaploid) are compared and discussed.

Keywords : self-incompatibility, polyploidy, Prunus, S-RNase, F-box
Volume : 8(1) pp. 24 - 33, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Monopodial rosette-forming Rosaceae – a Model for teratological Research
*A. A. Notov & E. A. Andreeva
Faculty of Biology, Department of Botany, Tver State University, 170100 Tver, Zhelyabova St. 33, 170100, RUSSIA
*e-mail: anotov@mail.ru
Received : 28.04.2015; Revised : 10.09.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.11. 2015
  ABSTRACT


Monopodial rosette-forming herbaceous Rosaceae is a convenient model group for researching the anomalies of the generative structures. We studied the diversity of anomalous structures in different taxon this groups. Homeotic variantes of the anomalies in monopodial rosette-forming Rosaceae connected with the features of their architectural model. We developed the classification approach to the analysis of teratological diversity. It takes into account also mechanisms of conversion of typical morphogenesis. Our classification of anomalies of monopodial rosette-forming Rosaceae has several levels of detail. We developed also special classifications of anomalous structures for specific taxonomic groups. We have considered for example of Geum rivale teratology-specific in the taxa with great frequency of homeotic structures. For example, species of the Alchemilla vulgaris complex studied a variety of anomalies in the taxa with regular apomixis. The species of this complex are characterized by a high level of variability of the flower, which does not depend on weather conditions. We found that in the multiflorous thyrsae of Alchemilla the flowers with an increased number of elements is localized on low orders of branching. Flowers with a reduced number of elements are formed at higher orders of branching. Further teratological analysis of other taxa of monopodial rosette-forming Rosaceae is relevant.

 

Keywords : Anomaly, teratology, flower, generative structures, classification, monopodial rosette-forming plants, Alchemilla, Geum, Potentilla, Rosaceae.

Volume : 8(1) pp. 34 - 45, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Pollen-pistil interactions in flowering plants
Houria Hadj-Arab
University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene Faculty of Biological Sciences
LBPO, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Algiers, Algeria

*e-mail: hhadj-arab@usthb.dz; hhadj_arab@yahoo.fr
Received : 01.06.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT

Pollination process in flowering plants involves a series of complex cellular and molecular interactions between the haploid male gametophyte (pollen grain) and the diploid female sporophyte (tissue of the pistil). It includes events such as pollen adhesion, hydration, germination, pollen tube growth and guidance to the ovule. Moreover, in the most of hermaphroditic plants, the close proximity of male and female reproductive organs has led to the evolution of reproductive strategies that promote cross-fertilization and thus contribute to increase genetic diversity, a crucial condition to angiosperm success. Self-incompatibility (SI) systems prevent self fertilization by discerning and rejecting self-pollen, they are genetically controlled by one or more multi-allelic loci. These SI systems control the interaction between the pollen and the pistil at cellular and molecular levels. This review focuses on recent progress on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pollen-pistil interactions and pollen tube growth, in both compatible and incompatible situations.

Keywords : Pollen-pistil interaction, Self-incompatibility
Volume : 8(1) pp. 46-55, 2016 Download PDF
  Pollen-Pistil interactions : Biochemical and Molecular Insights-A Review
Prem Kumar Dantu, Akanksha Khaitwar & Sant S. Bhojwani*
Department of Botany, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 281005, India
*Prem Nagar, Dayalbagh, Agra, India
*e-mail: bhojwani1940@gmail.com
Received : 01.06.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT

Pollen-stigma interaction plays crucial role not only for successful fertilization but also for prevention of inappropriate fertilization. This interaction acts as the very first check point in selection or rejection of pollen grains. Pollen-stigma interaction not only represent a good example of cell-cell communication but the responses coming from these interactions are fast. During the interaction, many genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in pollen and stigma and the resultant molecules facilitate this interaction. In this review, molecular and biochemical aspects of pollen-stigma interaction are discussed.

Keywords : Pollen-stigma interaction, Sexual incompatibility, Cell-cell communication, S-locus, Pollen coat, Style.

Volume : 8(1) pp. 56-64, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Reproductive Biology Data in Plant Systematics—An Overview
Arun K. Pandey*, Mayank D. Dwivedi and Akram Gholami
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India
*e-mail :arunkpandey@botany.du.ac.in

Received :15.04.2014; Revised: 06.09.2015; Accepted and Published online: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT

The morphology of flowers plays an important role in assessing relationships between reproductive biology and plant systematics. The structure of nectaries in flowers and the composition of nectars provide an useful comparative data. Flower fragrances have been shown to influence the behavior and flower visitation patterns of pollinators and can play a significant role in plant evolution and speciation. Patterns of UV reflectance and absorbance from reproductive structures, especially petals, phenological data, pollination and breeding systems, are useful for taxonomic purposes. Reproductive biology data in taxonomy provide a better understanding of the function of structural characters used by taxonomists. It helps reveal proper homologies of character states.

Keywords : Floral morphology, phenology, pollination, breeding systems, dispersal systems
Volume : 8(1) pp. 65 - 74, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Pollination Biology of Phaius tankervilleae ( Banks ex L’ Herit ) Bl. (Orchidaceae)
Bhaskar Buragohain*, S.K. Chaturvedi** & N. Puro***.
*Department of Botany, Mariani College, Mariani, Jorhat, Assam – 785 634, India
**Department of Botany, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Koni Bilaspur, Chattisgarh – 495 009, India
***Department of Botany, Nagaland university, Lumami, Nagaland- 798 627, India

*e-mail: *buragohain.bhaskar@yahoo.com**sunchat1@rediffmail.com,
Received: 26.04.2015; Revised: 26.06.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.11.2015

  ABSTRACT


The pollination biology of Phaius tankervilleae ( banks Ex. I’ Herit ) Bl. ( Orchidaceae ) has been studied for three consecutive year 2012 – 2014 at two different localities, Viz., , Dissoi Valley Reserve forest (26°28´47´´ N and 94°16´14´´E) in Jorhat District of Assam state and at Natunmati, Ward No. 4. (26°38´35´´ N & 94°17´45´´ E) in Mariani township, Jorhat district, Assam of the North-east India. Blooming in Phaius tankervilleae takes place from February to May. The flowers of P. tankervilleae are self-compatible but require some biotic - pollinator to complete the process of pollination. The flowers with tubular labellum are non- rewarding but emit strong sweet fragrance which attracts various insects belonging to order Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera. However, out of all these visitors only Carpenter bees Xylocopa violacea of order Hymenoptera have been observed to pollinate the flowers during their visits to the flowers. Anthecological studies reveal the attachment of pollinaria on the dorsal surface of thorax of X. violacea which are the only pollinators of P. tankervilleae at the investigated sites in Assam. The mode of pollination is ‘Nototribic”.

Keywords : Phaius tankervilleae, Xylocopa violacea, Biotic - pollinators, Nototribic pollination.

 

Volume : 8(1) pp. 75 - 81, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Bisexuality in dioecious male plant: An unusual phenomenon of sex expression in Piper species

W. Deepanita Devi, P. R. Gajurel* & P. Rethy

Department of forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Deemed University,
Arunachal Pradesh, 791109, India.

*e-mail: prgajurel@gmail.com
Received : 11. 06. 2015; Revised: 08.09.2015; Accepted & Published on line: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT

The Piper species in India occurr in wild and are dioecious. An unusual sex expressions in male plants of two dioecious Piper species i.e., P. mullesua Buch. – Ham. ex D. Don and P. sylvaticum Roxb. occurring in north east India have been recorded. In both the species few abnormal male spikes were observed along with the normal spikes in some male plants. These abnormal spikes show the formation of ovary within the male flowers that subsequently develop into berries. The study of the abnormal spikes shows the occurrence of about 30% of bisexual flowers. Occurrence of 34% and 12.5% abnormal male spikes were recorded in individual plants of P. mullesua and P. sylvaticum respectively. Similar phenomenon was also noticed in P. sarmentosum, a common species of Malayan Peninsula.

Keywords : Piper mullesua, P. sylvaticum, P. sarmentosum, dioecious, male plant, bisexual flowers.
Volume : 8(1) pp. 82 - 86, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Phenology of 13 fern species in a tropical monsoon forest of southern Taiwan
Pei-Hsuan Lee,1,2,6) Shyuan-Wu Chen,3,6) Wen-Liang Chiou,4,6) Yao-Moan Huang,5,7) and Ho-Yih Liu1,7)
1) Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-san University, 70 Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan.
2) Lienhuachih Research Center, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 43 Hualong Ln., Yuchi Township, Nantou County
55543,Taiwan.
3) Kenting National Park Headquarters, 596 Kenting Road, Hengchun Township, Pingtung 94644, Taiwan.
4) Division of Botanical Garden, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nanhai Rd., Taipei 10066, Taiwan.
5) Division of Silviculture, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nanhai Rd., Taipei 10066, Taiwan.
6) Contributed equally.
7) e-mail: huangym@tfri.gov.tw; hoyih@mail.nsysu.edu.tw
Received : 31.07.2015; Revised: 07. 09. 2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.11.2015
 

ABSTRACT

In the present study, phenological events of 13 fern species were monitored in the Kenting Uplifted Coral Reef Nature Reserve (N 21°58', E 120°48'; alt: 250–300m), a tropical monsoon forest located in southern Taiwan, during 1997 and 2000. This region has a distinct alternation of dry and wet seasons, in November–March and April–October, respectively. The phenological events of leaf emergence/expansion and spore maturation/release mainly occurred in the wet season and significantly positively correlated with average monthly temperature and monthly precipitation. However, the leaf senescence of these ferns is generally aseasonal. All species produced both sterile and fertile leaves except Arthropteris palisotii and Microsorum punctatum, which only produced sterile leaves. Despite monomorphic, except Ctenitopsis dissecta, the other 10 species develop their sterile and fertile leaves in significantly different sizes, and some species showed different phenological patterns and life span between their sterile and fertile leaves. Fertile leaves remained green for 5–16 months after releasing spores, and no more sorus was produced during this time. This is the first insight of fern phenological study in the paleotropical monsoon forests, and the information herein provides basic references for further studies to facilitate the understanding of the fern biology and ecology.

Keywords : dry-wet season, fertile leaf, life span, seasonality, sterile leaf.

 
Volume : 8(1) pp. 87 - 97, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Extra-stigmatic pollination: A phenomenon that seeks answers
Awtar Kishen Koul*, Namrata Sharma** & Uzma Hamal**
*Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri-185131, (J&K), India.
**Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (J&K), India.

*e-mail: phyllanthus@rediffmail.com.
Received :08.08.2015; Accepted and Published on line: 01.11.2015.
  ABSTRACT


Evolution of closed carpel and the consequent enclosure of ovule has made pollen-pistil interaction integral part of the sexual cycle of flowering plants. The pistil provides the site for pollen to land, be recognized, germinate and produce pollen tube. In majority of angiosperms the stigma performs all these functions. The present communication reviews three cases in which the functions discharged by stigma are taken up by the ovary wall, stylopodium and the nectar disc. These cases raise plethora of questions which need to be answered. The paper also traces the evolution of stigma following invasion of land by plants.

Keywords : Stigma, siphnogamy, zooidiogamy, ovary wall, stylopodium, nectary disc.

 
Volume : 8(1) pp. 98 - 102, 2016 Download PDF
 
  Gender determination mechanisms in plants: foundation for unisexuality
Yash Mangla, Priyanka Khanduri & Rajesh Tandon*
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007, India
*e-mail: rjtnd@rediffmail.com
Received : 24.07.2015; Revised: 04.09.2015; Accepted & Published online: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT


Knowledge of mechanisms determining and maintaining unisexuality in the flowering plants is of ecological, evolutionary and commercial importance. Among the flowering plants sexuality is manifested to various extents. Among these, the dioecious and monoecious plants provide an excellent opportunity to study the gender determination mechanism. Empirical studies carried on dioecious plant species provided a sequence of stages/events that represent the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants. These events include origin of sex determination genes/loci, suppression of recombination at sex determination loci, its extension to adjacent regions, accumulation of random mutations and finally the degeneration of Y chromosome that lead to the origin of heteromorphic pair of sex chromosome. Recent advances in molecular tools have enabled researchers to decipher the role of hormones and micro RNAs. Emerging information from recent studies on various aspects of gender expression in plants suggest that all these components might be interrelated and could be linked to sex chromosomes in future studies. In the present chapter we provide the highlights of current understanding on the sex determination mechanism prevalent in flowering plants with special reference to dioecious and monoecious sexual systems.

Keywords : sexual system, sex chromosomes, micro RNAs, dioecy, monoecy,

 
Volume : 8(1) pp. 103 - 114, 2016 Download PDF

 
  Cumulative individual seed production in the polycarpic Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae): effects of temporal variability in floral display, plant density and pollination
Ana Calviño 1, Lorena Ashworth1 & Leonardo Galetto1,2
1 Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV; UNC-CONICET). C.C. 495, C.P. X5000JJC.
Tel-Fax +54 (351) 433-2104. Córdoba, Argentina.
2 Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina

*e-mail: anacalv@imbiv.unc.edu.ar; lash@imbiv.unc.edu.ar; leo@imbiv.unc.edu.ar.
Received : 29.09.2015: Accepted & Published online: 01.11.2015
  ABSTRACT

In polycarpic species, floral display size and density of conspecific neighbours are time variable as well as their effects on pollination and fecundity. Here, we address how individual pollinator-dependent seed production responds to changes in floral display size and the density of flowering conspecific neighbours. Using path analysis, we disentangle the partial effects of floral display size, the density of flowering neighbours and pollination intensity on the total seed output of the partially self-compatible shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii during three consecutive reproductive seasons. We also modelled the effects of temporal variability in floral offer and pollination intensity (as the coefficient of variation) on cumulative seed production over the study period. Floral display size had either positive or negative effects on pollination intensity in different reproductive seasons, but conspecific density had no significant effect within each season. However, cumulative seed production increased under lower temporal variability in conspecific density. Our results suggest that, because of the dynamic nature of floral offer in a polycarpic species, the temporal changes in floral display size and density may counteract each other reducing the risk of successive pollination failures and increasing seed production over time.


Keywords : conspecific density, floral offer, path analysis, pollination variability, size-dependent fecundity.

Volume : 8(1) pp. 115 -127, 2016 Download PDF

 
 
 
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