The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-12, Number-1, Jan, 2020

Flexibility in floral phenological events - a strategy adopted by a ruderal weed for successful invasion

Priya Sharma and Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu – 180006. India

*e-mail :
Received : 16.07.2019; Revised: 29.07.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.09. 2019


Invasive plants are known to adopt several strategies for successful invasion in new areas. These include flexibility in their genetic system, including reproductive strategies. We report a ruderal weed Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. exhibiting flexibility in floral phenological events as a strategy for successful invasion. This species has been reported to practise mixed mating system via specialized hinge mechanism that promotes cross pollination. In sub-tropical climates of Jammu, the species has an extended flowering period of 7–8 months and behaves as a highly self-pollinated one with fruit set on bagging (92%) almost in sync with that on open pollination (100%). Although the flowers are visited by insects during the peak blooming period, they were found to be just casual visitors. We speculate that self-pollination has evolved in the species as a strategy for successful invasion.

Keywords:  Weed, outcrossing, invasion, flexibility, autogamy.
Volume : 12(1) pp. 1-4, 2020 Download PDF

Floral biology and mode of sexual reproduction in the Cork-Tree (Quercus suber L.) under climate variation

Fatiha Lebtahi * and Nadia Bouguedoura **.
1University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, Faculty of Biological Sciences,
BP 32, Bab Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers, Algeria,
2 National Institute of Forestry Research, Laboratory in vitro culture, BP 37, 16048 Chéraga, Algeria

e-mail : * ;
Received :05.09.2019; Revised: 23.10.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.11.2019


Floral structure through developmental stages from flowering to the maturity of the acorns of the cork oak (Quercus suber) growing in a natural population was studied during five consecutive years (2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019). Phenological observations revealed a diversity of reproductive organs: males, females and hermaphrodites on the same tree. The cork oak has an annual cycle leading to the formation of acorn, which is characteristic of this species. Double bloom is also a phenomenon observed in the populations studied. This study was made for understanding the biology of cork oak and the shortterm adaptation mechanisms that this species puts in place in answer to climate change.
Keywords : Flowering phenology, double bloom, adaptation mechanism, climate change.
Volume : 12(1) pp. 5-10, 2020 Download PDF

Spatial and temporal distribution of floral resources used by pollinators in a semi-deciduous seasonal forest

Erika Ramos Ono1, Adriano Valentin-Silva and Elza Guimarães2*.
São Paulo State University, Rua Prof. Dr. Antonio Celso Wagner Zanin, s/n, 18618-689,
Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Botany, Institute of Biosciences, UNESP –
São Paulo State University, Rua Prof. Dr. Antonio Celso Wagner Zanin, s/n, 18618-689, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Received :08.10.2019; Revised: 09.12.2019; Accepted and Published online: 15. 12. 2019

Pollination is a fundamental process in the life cycle of many plant species because it is related to the maintenance of new generations and consequent perpetuation of most of the species. Flowers are the organs related to the sexual reproduction of angiosperms, and most species are pollinated by animals, which visit flowers in search of resources that are essential to their survival. We aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal supply of floral resources associated with the maintenance of the pollinator community in the forest remnants of the Botanical Garden of the Institute of Biosciences (BG/IB), located in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. In order to describe the floral resources available to pollinators, we used a floristic survey and we obtained information about the type of habit, floral resources, pollinators, and flowering period of each plant species in specialized websites, books and papers. Of the 207 listed species, we obtained data for 136 (65.7%) species. Nectar was the resource most frequently found in species of all habits, being present in 77 species, followed by pollen (32), nectar/pollen (20), and oil (two). We separated plant species into nine groups based on pollination vectors. Bees predominated as pollinators in all plant habits. We recorded two flowering peaks in the community, one in the transition months between the rainy and dry season (March/April) and the other in the transition months between dry and rainy season (October/November). The melittophilous species were the majority in the study area (70%) and its flowering pattern coincided with that observed for the community. For species pollinated by bats and beetles, it was not possible to identify an annual distribution pattern due to the low number of representatives in the study area. Thus, most pollination vectors seem to be supplied by floral resources throughout the year atBG/IBB.

Keywords : Floral resources, flowering, nectar, phenology, pollen, pollination syndromes.

Volume : 12(1) pp. 11-24, 2020 Download PDF
  Dendrological Park “Sofiyivka”: Its History and Botanic Collection
Ivan S. Kosenko , Olga A. Opalko , Liudmyla . Zagoruiko * and Anatoly Iv. Opalko
National dendrological park «Sofiyivka» of NAS of Ukraine, 12-à Kyivska Str., Uman, Cherkasy region, Ukraine 20305
Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, 2 Sadova Str., Uman, Cherkasy region, Ukraine 20300

Received : 03.11.2019; Revised: 03.12.2019; Accepte and Published online: 15.12.2019
Some milestones in the history of the world-famous “Sofiyivka” park and its collection of plants, life and romantic relationships of Sofia (née Clavone, de Witt) Potocka had been revealed in a retrospective review. She was one of the most attractive and mysterious women of the 18th – 19th centuries, who inspired her powerful admirer Stanislaw Szczesny (Felix) Potocki to create a romantic park in Uman. The article describes the periods of the history of the foundation, construction, development, and preservation of the “Sofiyivka” park. The present study is focused on the architectural compositions of the motifs of myths, legends of Ancient Greece and the Ossianic motifs of the knightly middle Ages are combined. The data on the creation of modern facilities for the implementation of scientific research related to monitoring the state, preservation of the plant world of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. It also includes maintaining and developing botanical collections, as well as biotechnology, genetics, breeding, and reproductive plant biology; landscape gardening and landscape construction had been given. Plant collections of the National dendrological park “Sofiyivka” are included in the register of the National Heritage as a monument of landscape gardening art of world significance, a museum of nature and landscape art. At present “Sofiyivka” is in the status of a research institute and is a part of the Section of Chemical and Biological Sciences of the National Academy ofSciences of Ukrain.

Keywords :  arrangement and placement of plants, exotic plants, landscape design, Ossianic motifs, restoration planting, small architectural forms, Stanisùaw and Sofia Potocki.

Volume : 12(1) pp. 25-33, 2020 Download PDF

Effect of Media Composition on Green and Albino Shoot Regeneration in Anther Culture Studiesof Boro Rice Hybrids

Chaitali Sen* and R.P Singh**
*Rai Technology University, Bangalore– 561204 and **Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India


Received : 12.11.12019; Revised: 01.12.2019; Accepted and Published online: 12.12.2019


The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of genotype and regeneration media in anther culture of boro rice hybrids. Calli derived from the parents and f1 hybrids of boro x high yielding indica rice varieties were transferred to regeneration medium MS1 and MS2. MS2 medium supplemented with additional growth regulator and maltose as a carbon source was found to be more suitable for green plant regeneration in parents and f1 hybrids studied. The parents Krishna Hansa showed maximum green plant regeneration frequency followed by IR64 in MS2 medium. Among the hybrids maximum green plant regeneration was observed in Krishna Hansa x MTU 7029 followed by Krishna Hansa x BPT 5204 in MS2 medium. Anther culture response is influenced by the genotype and media composition in indica rice hybrids.

Keywords: Anther, Green Plants, Albino Plants, Callus, Maltose, Growth regulator

Volume : 12(1) pp. 34-37, 2020 Download PDF

Pollination in socio-agroecosystems: recommendations to preserve the diversity of pollinators

Leonardo Galetto* and Carolina Torres
Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (UNC) and Instituto
Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET),
Vélez Sarsfield 1611, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina.

Received : 29.11.2019; Revised: 11.12. 2018; Accepted and Published online: 25.12.2019


Pollinators play a crucial role in human well-being, as they contribute to pollination of many crops and influence plant reproduction and biodiversity conservation of native plants. There is a gradual disappearance of major pollinator species throughout the world. Key threats to pollinators and pollination include industrial agriculture, climate change and the spread of alien species. It is necessary to introduce modifications in the agroecosystem management to solve threats to pollinators, working at different landscape scales and considering biodiversity complexity. Sustainable management of pollinators offers the chance to maintain or increase biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is important to recognize that many of the ecosystem services offered by nature to human societies cannot be perceived directly and therefore we do not value them properly. If we want to improve conservation and human well-being, first step is to know about ecosystem services; evaluate them and finally change human practices threatening biodiversity. It is important to recognize that there are diverse ways of understanding and living in the world, implying a variety of environmental ethics that guide political, economic and environmental decision making. Societies need to preserve common goods and conserve biodiversity to guarantee human well-being.

Keywords : Pollinators, socio-agroecosystems, biodiversity, conservation, ecosystem services
Volume : 12(1) pp. 38-43, 2020 Download PDF

Karyological and Cytogenetical Studies on Gymnosperms in V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest


Elena N. Muratova*, Tamara S. Sedel’nikova, Olga V. Goryachkina and Alexander V. Pimenov
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research Center «Krasnoyarsk
Science Center SB RAS», Akademgorodok 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, Russia.

*Corresponding author e-mail:;
Received : 02.12.2019; Accepted and published online: 15.12.209


More than 200 populations and provenances of representatives of different genera from the families Pinaceae and Cupressaceae, and also from the genus Ephedra, family Ephedraceae, were studied. Investigations were carried out in natural populations and at introduction, in different environmental conditions, in botanical gardens and parks; various intraspecific forms and unique trees have been studied. The variability of chromosome numbers and a wide range of chromosomal mutations have been revealed. The studies on karyotypes in species of conifers showed higher level of chromosomal anomalies and their wide spectrum in extreme conditions, at introduction, in cultivars and abnormal form of trees. Use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the 45S and 5S ribosomal RNA gene probes and DAPI staining allows to identify of homologous chromosome pairs in the karyotypes of conifers and to facilitate the comparative karyotype analysis of these species.

Keywords : populations, intraspecies forms, introduction, conifers, karyotype, chromosomes, variability, chromosomal mutations, ribosomal RNA genes.

Volume : 12(1) pp. 44-55, 2020 Download PDF

Fruitàge and seed viability of Orchis purpurea (Orchidaceae) at the northeast limit of distribution

Andronova E.V. *1, Kovaleva A. A.1, Evdokimova E. E. , Nazarov V. V. and Semeonov A. V.
Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS, 197376 Russia, St. Petersburg, Prof. Popov str., 2
V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, 295007 Russia, Republic of Crimea, Simferopol, Prospekt Vernadskogo, 4

Received :04.12.2019; Revised: 15.12.2019; Accepted and Published online: 20.12.2019


The analysis of data on fruitàge, heterospermy, viability of seeds and seed progeny in Orchis purpurea at the northeastern limit of distribution (Krasnodar region and Crimea) was carried out. The percentage of fruit formation in the Krasnodar region was low with natural pollination (on average 1-4 %), and higher with artificial pollination (on average 34-77%). In the Crimea the percentage of fruit set varied from 9 % (forest) to 39 % (meadow). Seeds were differed in vitality; color of seed coat and embryo, as well as by the degree of homogeneity of their dimensional parameters (length, width) and shape. Plants from the populations of the Krasnodar region were characterized by a high number of non-viable seeds, without embryo or with degenerating embryo. It was shown that the proportion of seeds without embryos in fruits obtained by autogamy or geitonogamy is higher (between different plants 22 - 93 %, in average 63 %) than in fruits formed after cross-pollination between different individuals (xenogamy) (3 - 69 %, in average 34 %). It was found that a high proportion of non-viable seeds are a consequence of the manifestation of lethal anomalies of embryogenesis. The viability of the seeds (both from the Caucasus and Crimea) in a germination test was low. Plants from the studied populations are characterized by low real seed productivity. Based on the results of the cytoembryological study, a general conclusion can be drawn that the low real seed productivity of O. purpurea, both in the Caucasus and in the Crimea, arises due to the lethal anomalies manifested both at the stage of seed development and in the post-seed period.

Keywords : Krasnodar region, Crimea, cytoembryology, fruitàge, heterospermy, geitonogamy, xenogamy, seed and seedlings viability
Volume : 12(1) pp. 56-66, 2020 Download PDF
  Isolation of Unreduced Apomixis in Maize

Marina I. Tsvetova, Lev A. Elkonin*, Valery M. Panin, Elena V. Belyaeva and Saule Kh. Sarsenova
Agricultural Research Institute of South-East Region, Saratov, Russia

Received : 01.12.2019; Revised: 17. 12. 2019; Accepted and Published online: 28.12.2019


Apomictic seed development is a complex process including formation of unreduced embryo sac, parthenogenetic embryo development from the egg cell, and endosperm formation either autonomously, or due to fertilization of polar nuclei by the sperm (under pseudogamous form of apomixis). In spite of great efforts, in important agriculturally valuable crop species, including maize, apomictic lines have not been developed until now. Previously, we found that usage of tetraploid maize lines as pollen parents allowed to obtain apomictic progeny in a number of diploid maize lines. In addition, we found the line (V47) produced relatively high frequency of tetraploid F hybrids in such crosses that suggested 1 formation of unreduced embryo sacs in this line. We crossed V47 with the line AT-1 capable of high frequency of maternal haploid parthenogenesis (developed by V.S. Tyrnov, Saratov State University, Russia). In the F2 progeny of V47/AT-1, we found individuals that being pollinated by tetraploid line Chernaya-Tetra (Ch-T) were capable of formation of normal plump kernels producing diploid maternal-type plants. PCR analysis with primers to Indel-marker differentiating Ch-T from V47 and AT-1 confirmed maternal nature of these plants and hybrid nature of endosperm of these kernels that is characteristic to pseudogamous apomixis. These data might point to the presence of unreduced apomixis in the progeny of V47/AT-1 maize hybrids and testify to possibility of creating apomictic maize genotypes..

Keywords : pseudogamous apomixis; interploid crosses; unreduced embryo sacs; maize
Volume : 12(1) pp. 67-71, 2020 Download PDF

Floral anatomy and flower visitors of three persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) varieties cultivated in Central Europe

Virág Andor and Ágnes Farkas
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy,
University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Rókus str. 2., Hungary

*e-mail :
Received : 20.12.2019; Accepted and Published online: 31.12.2019


We report flower and pollination biological traits of three persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) varieties cultivated under suboptimal conditions in the temperate climate of Central Europe. In order to observe flower visiting insects and floral morphology, and to determine the nectar producing capacity of persimmon flowers, field studies were conducted in 2018 and 2019. The anatomical studies were performed with light microscopy. Quantitative floral traits were analysed with two-sample t-test. The main flower visitors were honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and bumblebees (Bombus sp.), which can act as pollinators, while searching for nectar. The studied persimmon varieties belong to the gynoecious type, the solitary pistillate flowers consisting of fourmembered calyx and corolla, reduced androecium and a pistil with superior ovary and 3 to 5 stigmata. The size of the calyx was significantly different in different varieties, but corolla diameter did not differ within the same year of study. The diameter of both the calyx and corolla of the same variety was bigger in 2019 compared to 2018, due to favourable climatic conditions. The sepals are covered by cuticle, stomata are typically mesomorphic, and both cover hairs and capitate glandular hairs can be observed. The mesophyll is made up by spongy parenchyma, with closed collateral vascular bundles and substantial proportion of intercellular cavities. The cuticle-covered petals are thicker and consist of more cell layers, but contain smaller proportion of intercellulars, compared to sepals. The ovary contains orthotropous ovules, and stigma papillae are structurally suitable for receiving pollen. The horn-shaped nectary is automorphic, supplied with vascular bundles. Despite the presence of fully developed nectaries, we were not able to extract any nectar from the flowers, which may be due to suboptimal climatic conditions for nectar production.

  Keywords : bumblebee, honeybee, nectar, pistillate flower, pollination
Volume : 12(1) pp. 72-75, 2020 Download PDF

Phenology of some important tree species at Gwalior with special reference to flowering period

Ashok K. Jain* and Musadiq Hussain Bhat
School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior – 474011, India

*e-mail :
Received : 21.10.2019; Revised: 06.112019; Accepted and Published online: 15.11.2019


Flowering period of 48 important tree species growing at Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh was recorded. Mode of pollination of these species was also observed. Maximum number of these species blooms between March to May, while only a few bloom in October. Most of these trees show entomophilous mode of pollination as they are pollinated by insects, while only a few are anemophilous.

Keywords : Phenology, entomophilous, anemophilous, Gwalior.
Volume : 12(1) pp. 76-79, 2020 Download PDF

Pollen germination studies in Boerhavia diffussa Linn. (Nyctaginaceae) – an important medicinal plant

Gulshan Chaudhary, Preksha Shrivastav and Prem Kumar Dantu*
Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Dayalbagh Educational Institute,
Dayalbagh, Agra -282005, India.

Received : 20.10.2019; Revised: 19. 12.2019; Accepted and published online: 01.01.2020



Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (Nyctaginaceae) is an important medicinal plant rich in various flavonoids used in cure of several diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, eye and heart diseases. Present study has been undertaken to examine the influence of various physical and chemical parameters on in vitro pollen germination in B. Effect of physical factors as temperature, relative humidity and pH and chemical factors as varying carbohydrates and their concentrations, media salt concentrations, and were examined on pollen germination of B. diffusa and the results are discussed in the light of the available literature.
Keywords : Boerhavia, pollen, sugar, boric acid, temperature, pH
Volume : 12(1) pp. 80-83, 2020 Download PDF
  Development and Structure of Phytomelanin in Coreopsideae (Asteraceae)

Roshni Rajamohan Mathur and Arun K. Pandey*
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India

Department of Botany, Deshbandhu College (University of Delhi), New Delhi-110019, India
*e-mail :
Received : 12.11.2019; Revised: 27. 11.2019; Accepted and published online: 05.12.2020


The pattern of deposition of phytomelanin has been studied in 12 taxa of the tribe Coreopsideae viz., Bidens biternata, B. connata, B. pilosa, B. parviflora, Cosmos sulphureus, Coreopsis grandiflora, C. major, Dahlia merckii, D. pinnata, Moonia arnottiana (subtribe Coreopsidinae) and Chrysanthellum indicum, Glossocardia bosvallia (subtribe Chrysanthellinae). Most of the species studied had pappus represented as awns or scales. In subtribe Coreopsidinae, the cypselae of Bidens connata, B. tripartita are non-striated whereas in Bidens biternata, B. pilosa and Dahlia spp., cypselae are striated. In the members of subtribe Chrysanthellinae, cypselae are non-striated. There was overall similarity in the pattern of spine and pore development at the tribal level.

Keywords : Asteraceae, Phytomelanin, Coreopsideae
Volume : 12(1) pp. 84-94, 2020 Download PDF
  Phenological studies on Ocimum gratissimum L.

Somnath Kar* , Aparajita Das and B. K. Datta
1 Department of Botany, Holy Cross College, Jubatara, Lembucherra, Tripura, India
2 Plant Taxonomy and Biodiversity Laboratory, Department of Botany,
Tripura University, Suryamaninagar -799022, Tripura, India.

*e-mail :
Received : 28.09.2019; Revised: 14.11.2019;Accepted and Published online: 01-12-2019


The genus Ocimum is the largest genus of the subfamily Nepetoideae under the family Lamiaceae. It and has more than 160 species and worldwide (Pushpangadan 1995). It is called “king of herbs” due to its immense use in traditional system of medicine, perfumery and pharmaceutical industry (Simpson and Corner 1986). About 65 species are native to Ocimum and the rest are synonyms (Pushpangadan and Bradu 1995). The species of the genus Ocimum show great deal of genetic diversity influenced by cross pollination and several environmental factors. In India, nine species of Ocimum have been reported including three exotic species namely O. americanum L., O. minimum L., and O.


Volume : 12(1) pp. 95-97, 2020 Download PDF

  Phenology of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae)

Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13-I Kauhsalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India
Received: 02.02.2019; Received: 02.04.2019; Accepted and Published online: 20.12. 2019


Melia azedarach, is commonly known by many names, including chinaberry tree, bead-tree, Cape lilac, syringa berry tree, Persian lilac (Anonymous 2017), Pride of India and Indian lilac (Nelson 1996). It is a species of deciduous tree of the family, Meliaceae, and is native to Indomalaya and Australasia (Mabberly 1984). M. azedarach is often planted as an ornamental shade tree. Several compounds from Chinaberry have been isolated for medical purposes. Two insecticidal compounds, namely, 1-cinnamoylmelianolone and 1-cinnamoyl-3, 11-dihydroxymeliacarpin, are isolated from the fruit of M. azedarach (Lee et al. 1991). Villamil et al.

Volume : 12(1) pp. 98-99, 2020 Download PDF
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