The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-11, Number-2, July, 2019

Facultative symbiosis of Oophila amblystomatis (Chlorophyceae) with amphibian eggs and embryos

A. G. Desnitskiy
Department of Embryology, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, 199034,
Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, Russia.

e-mail :;
Received : 08.05.2019; Revised: 21.05.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.06.2019


Literature data on facultative mutualistic (symbiotic) relationships between amphibian embryos and unicellular green algae have been considered. Such symbioses may be important for the survival and dispersal of some tailed and anuran amphibians. The green amphibian clutches had been found in North America, Europe and Japan. The algae proliferate quite intensively within the jelly egg capsules of several species from the families Ambystomatidae and Hynobiidae (Caudata) and Ranidae (Anura). A unique symbiosis between the green alga Oophila amblystomatis and the salamander Ambystoma maculatum has been recently described. In this case a part of the symbiotic algal population from the egg capsule penetrates into embryonic tissues and cells. The intracellular algae display signs of stress and undergo a metabolic shift from oxidative metabolism to fermentation. A preliminary hypothesis about vertical transmission of the symbionts in Ambystoma has been suggested.

Keywords:  Amphibian embryos, Oophila amblystomatis, symbiotic algae.
Volume : 11(2) pp. 103-106, 2019 Download PDF

Diversity and distribution of aquatic hyphomycetes in fresh water bodies of Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, India

P. Pant, A. Koranga and S. C. Sati*
Department of Botany, D. S. B. Campus, Kumaun University Nainital- 263001, India

*e-mail :
Received : 21.06.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.07.2019


The Aquatic hyphomycetes comprised of an important ecological community in freshwater streams, mainly involved in submerged leaf litter decomposition and energy flow of stream ecosystem. A total 30 species of aquatic hyphomycetes belonging to 17 genera were recovered from the submerged leaf litter and live roots of various forested plants from nearby fresh water bodies of Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, India. Of these, 9 species were recovered as root endophyte while 17 species were also observed on collected foam samples of different streams. A maximum number of species were recorded from a high altitude stream whereas minimum number of species was recorded from a low altitude stream. The host wise occurrence and their worldwide distribution are discussed.
Keywords : Aquatic hyphomycetes, diversity and distribution, root endophytes.
Volume : 11(2) pp. 107-113, 2019 Download PDF
  Inter-specific variability in phenology of three species of Asterella

Pallvi Sharma* and Anima Langer
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir-180006, INDIA

*Corresponding author: e-mail:
Received : 02.05.2019; Revised: 01.06.2019; Accepted and published online: 07.06. 2019


Phenological data for three species of Asterella (A. wallichiana, A. multiflora and A. leptophylla) growing in foothills of Himalaya have been collected fortnightly for one year. Environmental attributes and topography affect the phenology of the male and female receptacles and it also varies from one geographical location to another. In all the three species, male and female receptacles occurred simultaneously. A. multiflora and A. leptophylla followed exactly the same phenological behaviour. In these two species, winter was found to be the most favourable period for both male and female receptacles, while, in A. wallichiana, both the phases were observed during monsoon-autumn. A. wallichiana also depicted a distinct sporophytic period (autumn-winter) as compared to the rest of the two species in which sporophytes w ere observed in winter-spring.

Keywords : Phenology, Asterella multiflora, A. leptophylla, A. wallichiana, sporophyte

Volume : 11(2) pp. 114-120, 2019 Download PDF

Ex situ conservation of threatened ferns and lycophytes in Taiwan, aspect of reproductive biology

Yao-Moan Huang , Chien-Wen Chen , Wen-Liang Chiou , Ho-Ming Chang and Huan-Yu Lin
Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei City 10066, Taiwan
Endemic Species Research Institute, Jiji Township, Nantou County 55244, Taiwan
e-mail : *; **
Received : 01.06.2019; Revised: 25.06.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.07.2019
Among more than 800 pteridophyte (infra)species in Taiwan, 169 of them are threatened, and 38 are 14 critically endangered, 9 endangered, and 15 vulnerable species locate outside of nature protected areas. The threatened species are facing high risk of disappearance due to human activities and habitat destruction. Ex situ conservation of them, therefore, is most urgent and important. Present article reviews the work done on spore storage, sporophyte vegetative propagation, and gametophyte reproduction in order to help in understanding their reproduction biology as well as to promote the cultivation technology and ex situ conservation.

Keywords : gametophyte, geographical coordinate, spore, sporophyte, protected area, pteridophyte, Taiwan

Volume : 11(2) pp. 121-127, 2019 Download PDF
  Chiasma Frequency and their Distribution in Gymnosperms – A review

Elena N. Muratova
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research Center
Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia

Received : 22.05.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.06.2019


Literature data on chiasma frequencies in gymnosperms are summarized. At present these data are known for 58 species, 13 genera, and 5 families of gymnosperms; . this represents approx. 7, 25% of the total number of species only. Number of chiasmata per bivalent in first prophase of meiosis in gymnosperms varies from 0 to 5. Mean frequency of chiasmata per bivalent ranges from 1,70 (Taxus baccata) to 2,81 (Picea abies), number of chiasmata per cell is 20,90 (Athrotaxis ×laxifolia) – 33,72 (Picea abies). Features of genetic material organization and karyotypes of this group of plants are discussed. Different species of gymnosperms have not large differences in the average frequency of chiasmata per bivalent and per cell. It corresponds to stable karyotypes in relation on chromosome numbers and morphology and not very large range of DNA Cvalues in gymnosperm.

Keywords: meiosis, prophase I, bivalent, chiasmata, cell, karyotype, gymnosperm, conifer.

Volume : 11(2) pp. 128-138, 2019 Download PDF
  Environmental effects on expression of A type CMS of sorghum

L.A. Elkonin , G.A. Gerashchenkov , M.I. Tsvetova , S. Kh. Sarsenova and N.A. Rozhnova
1Agricultural Research Institute of South-East Region, Saratov, Russia;
2Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the
Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia
Corresponding author: e-mail :
Received : 03.05.2019; Revised: 20.05. 2019; Accepted and published online:01.06.2019


A -type CMS of sorghum is one of the most difficult to restore fertility. These difficulties 3 are due to the low frequency of fertility-restoring genes among sorghum accessions, the complex mechanism of fertility restoration that occurs with the complementary interaction of two gametophytic genes Rf3 and Rf4, and the sensitivity of their expression to air and soil drought. In order to further study the influence of environmental conditions on fertility restoration in A3 type CMS and elucidate the mechanisms of such influence, we studied the F1 hybrids obtained by crossing the CMS-line A3KP-70 with the KVV-96 – a line carrying the gametophytic fertility-restoring genes of IS1112C. Cytological analysis of the pollen of F1 hybrids grown in the plots with additional irrigation and in the dryland plots revealed a significant amount of degenerating pollen grains (PGs) with impaired accumulation of starch, separation of the PG content from the cell wall. The level of seed setting was not dependent directly on the level of pollen fertility. MSAP-analysis (Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism, MSAP) of DNA isolated from anthers of fertile plants grown under additional irrigation and partially-sterile (ps) plants from the same hybrid combination grown under field conditions, revealed a number of fragments, whose amplification differed in HpaII/MspI spectra and was associated with the level of plant fertility. Perhaps a change in the nature of DNA methylation may be one of themechanisms that regulate the restoration of male fertility in the A3 CMS of sorghum.

Keywords : Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; cytoplasmic male sterility; A3 cytoplasm; fertility-restoring genes; drought; epigenetics.
Volume : 11(2) pp. 139-144, 2019 Download PDF

Reproductive biology of gorse, Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) in the Mount Lofty Ranges of South Australia and Sri Lanka

  Champika S. Kariyawasam *and Sujith S. Ratnayake
1Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
Climate Change Secretariat, Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment, Battaramulla 10120, Sri Lanka
Present address: School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale 2351, NSW, Australia

*e-mail :
Received : Received: 12.06.2019; Revised : 21.06.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.07.2019

The present study aims at understanding how certain traits of gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) contribute to its reproductive success in two climatically distinct regions in its invasive range, South Australia and Sri Lanka. We examined three different traits, namely seed production per pod, pod predation and the density of seeds in the soil seed bank. Our results suggest that gorse populations in Sri Lanka had higher seed numbers per pod compared with gorse populations in South Australia. We found that predation of pods was negligible in our study sites in both countries during the period of study; although the literature shows that predation in gorse strongly depends on the time period. We observed significant differences in the density of gorse seeds in the top 5 cm layer of the seed bank between 3 m away from shrubs and under gorse shrubs. The estimated density of gorse seeds under shrubs in Sri 2 Lanka was 2141 / m which was 1.5 times higher than that of South Australia. This information can be useful to design strategies (i.e., biocontrol measures) for the control and management of gorse in countries in its invasive range.

Keywords : invasive plants, predation, seed bank density, seed production, Ulex europaeus

Volume : 11(2) pp. 145-152, 2019 Download PDF


Phenology, floral biology and breeding system of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) (Rosaceae)

Seema Chauhan*
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13-I, Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

e-mail :
Received : 05.01.2019; Revised: 20.05.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.06.2019


The present investigation was undertaken to study the phenological events, floral biology and breeding system of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) (Rosaceae) an important fruit tree. Observations were recorded randomly selected trees at an orchard on Dalhousie road, Pathakot for three years. It is a large evergreen shrub or small 15±5 m tall tree, with a rounded crown. Leaves are simple, dark green and elliptical-lanceolate to obovate lanceolate. Flowering commences in the second and third week of September and continues until the end of February. Sweetly fragrant, white flowers are borne in rusty-hairy, terminal panicles. Flowers open between 04.00 and 08.00 h in acropetal succession. Each flower consists of five green sepals and five white petals. Flowers are protrandous and the androecium consists of an indefinite number of stamens with basifixed anthers which dehisce longitudinally from 04.30 to 08.40 h. There are five styles with wet stigmas free at base, inserted on the upper surface of the ovary. Stigmas become receptive between 05.00 and 08.00 h. and remain so for 4-5 h. The ovary consists of five fused carpels. The septum, originating from the carpellary margins, divide the ovary into five locules, with each locule containing a placenta to which the two ovules are attached; the locules are lined by a thick cuticle. The pollen grains are oval or circular in shape, 3-colpate, with thick exine and shed at 2-celled stage. Pollen grains from freshly dehisced anthers are 85.7% viable. However, gradually the viability declines and at 16.00-17.30 h they are only 4-7% viable. The number of pollen/anther is 429±79 and, per flower, the pollen production is 8580±397. Each flower presents 10 ovules (2 in each locule of a pentacarpellary gynoecium). The pollen: ovule ratio is 858±39:1. Apis melifera and Xylocopa violacea (Apidae) are the floral visitors. Apis melifera visits 65±10 flowers/hour during the morning hours (04.00 - 08.00 h) soon after anthesis. The stay on a flower for 10-20 seconds and insert their proboscis at the base of the flower to collect the nectar and large amount of pollen. During their visit to the next flowers the pollen from the abdomen is transferred to the flower’s virgin stigma. The visiting frequency gradually decline until midday. The frequency of visits of Xylocopa violacea is low in comparison to those of Apis melifera. Wind plays no role in the pollination process. In open pollinated plants, the fruit-set is highest (58.5%). Hand pollination experiments indicate self-incompatibility as the bagged flowers fail to produce fruits. The ovule-pollen ratio (1: 858±39) and hand pollinating experiments indicate that this important fruit tree exhibits facultative geitonogamy. Fruiting starts in the last week of November and ripe in the month of March and continue until the end of May. On maturity fruits turn yellow and succulent with sweet or acid flavor. The seeds are light or dark-brown, angular–ellipsoid.

Keywords : Protandrous, Apis melifera, Xylocopa violacea, self-incompatible, geitonogamy.

Volume : 11(2) pp. 153-158, 2019 Download PDF

  Floral biology and floral visitors of Allophylus serratus (Hiern) Kurz

Nithya Basith1, Achsah Mariam Abraham2 and P. Selva Singh Richard, *
Department of Botany, Madras Christian College (Autonomous), Chennai, India – 600 059
Environmental Educator, Pitchandikulam Forest Consultants, Auroville–605101, India
*corresponding author e-mail:
Received : 13.06.2019; Revised: 27.06.2019; Accepted and Published online: 01.07.2019


Morphological and anatomical characters of Allophylus serratus (Sapindaceae) flowers were studied using bright field and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The study revealed that the plants are hermaphrodite with two floral morphs at the species level. Flowers are fragrant and nectariferous; nectar is produced from 4 receptacular nectary discs. Pollen and nectar, both constitute the floral rewards for visitors. Ant, bee, true bug (Hemiptera), butterfly, fly and wasp are the various groups of floral visitors that forage A. serratus flowers. Among these, butterfly is the most diverse group, comprising 11 species. Bees such as Apis florea, Lasioglossum and Tetragonula iridipennis were the effective pollinators. Both Melamphaus sp. (Red bug) and Palomena sp. (Common Green shield bug) were nectar robbers of this species.

Keywords : Receptacular nectaries, nectar, pollen, pollinator

Volume : 11(2) pp. 159-166, 2019 Download PDF


Non-morphogenetic post-trauma regeneration potential of Malus halliana Koehne (Rosaceae Juss.)

Olga A. Opalko and Anatoly Iv. Opalko*
National dendrological park «Sofiyivka» of NAS of Ukraine, 12-а Kyivska Str.,
Uman, Cherkasy region, 20300 Ukraine

Received : 01.07.2019; Accepted and Published online: 02.07.2019


The dynamics of the display of a non-morphogenic post-traumatic regenerative potential of Malus halliana Koehne (Rosaceae Juss.) in the Malus spp. collection during the growing season had been studied. To do this, each decade the sections of peripheral tissues of 10–12 mm in the length and a width of 1.5 mm together with a cambial layer were cut by specially made cutter on the annual shoots (increments of the past season). As a result of the wounds healing from artificial injuries, the terms of the highest activity of non-morphogenic regeneration processes had been determined. The comparison of the pace and intensity of the wounds healing with the dates of artificial cuts made it possible to conditionally divide the growing season of Malus halliana by a regenerative potential display at the following stages: an increase in the rates of regeneration, their relative decline, the second wave of increase of the rate of regeneration, and a fairly rapid attenuation. The tendency of higher dependence of regenerative potential on temperature fluctuations than on precipitation or hydrothermal coefficient had been revealed. It was suggested that the index of regenerative ability indirectly confirmed the level of environmental adaptation of the investigated plants, and periods of the highest regenerative activity could be favorable for vegetative reproduction and other technological processes, in particular the formation of bonsai, etc., which had been followed by the plants damage.

  Keywords : adaptive modifications, bonsai, crabapple tree, evaluation, hydrothermal coefficient, juvenile, plant damage.

Volume : 11(2) pp. 167-175, 2019 Download PDF

  Floral biology, breeding system and Pollination of Oxystelma esculentum (L.f.) Sm.

Soumitra Pal and Subrata Mondal*
Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731235, India

e-mail :
Received : 21.06.2019; Revised: 30.06.2019; Accepted and Published online: 02.07.2019


The present paper reveals the floral biology, breeding system and pollination of Oxystelma esculentum (L.f.) Sm. which is a medicinally important plant distributed throughout the India. The flowering period of plants ranged from July to January and the beautiful, pale pink, nectariferous flowers start to open from 05:30 h and continued up to 06:30 h. A single flower produced 485±23.0 pollen grains in average. Different insects represented by Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera were found to visit the flowers for nectar. Apis dorsata were found as the most dominant and effective one among the flower visitors. The fruit set in natural open conditions was 8.8 %, however no fruit set was observed in netting and bagging condition. In case of hand pollination 12 % fruit set were observed through xenogamy which is better than fruit formation through geitonogamy (4 %) and autogamy (0). Results from the breeding experiment suggested that, the plants exhibits xenogamous breeding system.

Keywords : Floral biology, breeding system, pollination, Oxystelma esculentum

Volume : 11(2) pp. 176-181, 2019 Download PDF


Pollination Biology of Valeriana wallichii, a threatened medicinal plant of Himalayan region

Susheel Verma Priyanka Kumari and Ankush Khujaria
Conservation and Molecular Biology Lab., Department of Botany, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University,
Rajouri-185234, India

*e-mail :
Received : 03.07.2019; Accepted and Publsihed online: 05.07.2019



Natural populations of Valeriana wallichii, a threatened medicinal plant of Himalayan region, comprise individuals showing three types of sex expression: female, hermaphrodite and gynomonoecious. The paper compares, pollination efficiency of female and hermaphrodites flowers. Apis dorsata and Apis cerana are the major pollinators of both kinds of flowers. The time of stigma receptivity of the two kinds of flowers varies; the stigma remains receptive for longer duration in female flowers. The pollen load on stigma of open pollinated hermaphrodite flowers is higher compared to stigmas of female flowers. Yet, female flowers outperform their hermaphrodite counterparts in reproductive output.
Keywords : Valeriana wallichii, hermaphrodite, female, gynomonoecious, pollination, stigma receptivity

Volume : 11(2) pp. 182-185, 2019 Download PDF


Phenology and floral biology of Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K. Heyne (Fabaceae)

Seema Chauhan and Manisha Agarwal*
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I-Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India
*Department of Botany, G.G.D.S.D. College, Palwal-121102,India

Received :
.12.12.2017 ; Revised: 02.03.2018; Accepted & Published online: 01.11.2018

Peltophorum pterocarpum (Fabaceae) a deciduous tree
commonly known as copper pod, yellow flame tree, or yellow-flame (Anonymous 2016). It is native to tropical south eastern Asia and a popular ornamental tree grown around the world. The tree is widely grown in tropical regions as an ornamental tree, particularly in India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Florida and Hawaii in the United States. In India as a common scheme for avenue trees P. pterocarpum is planted alternately with Delonix regia, to give a striking yellow and red effect in summer as has been done on Hughes road in Mumbai (Blatter and Millard 1977). This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria; these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby (Huxley 1992). The wood is used for cabinet-making (Charles 1966) and the foliage is used as a fodder crop.


Volume : 11(2) pp. 186, 2019 Download PDF

  Phenological clock of Solanum villosum Mill.

Bhavana Sharma*, Pooja Devi and Veenu Kaul
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu- 180006, India.

*e-mail :
Received : 01.07.2019; Accepted and Published online: 02.07.2019


Plants of Solanum villosum Mill., commonly known as red, hairy or woolly nightshade, grow widely under trees, in cultivated fields and shaded disturbed wastelands (, retrieved on 17-11-2015). This taxon is cosmopolitan in distribution and occurs throughtout India including Jammu (J&K). It has been revealed to be agronomically as well as pharmaceutically very important (Edmonds and Chweya 1997, Chowdhury et al. 2008, Jian et al. 2008, Kaushik et al. 2009).

Keywords : dehiscence, stigma, anthesis, flowering.Solanum villosum, phenology, anther

Volume : 11(2) pp. 187-188, 2019 Download PDF

  Phenology of Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze.

Romica Verma* and Veenu Kaul
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, India

*e-mail :
Received : 01.07.2019; Accepted and Published online: 02.07.2019


Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze. known by vernaculars like Indian Catmint, Kala Bhangra, Ram Tulsi etc. belongs to family Lamiaceae. Distributed in wide range of habitats fromsteep mountain slopes to alluvial flats, sandy and clayey soils (Bean 2015), A. indica is naturalized in Madagascar (APD 2013). It is medicinally very important as can be made out from the enormous literature available on its pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties (Dharmsiri et al. 2002, 2003, Govindrajan et al. 2010, Baranwal et al. 2012, Kundu et al. 2013, Lie et al. 2013, Dixit and Sharma 2014). In India, the species is widely distributed throughout Indian Himalayan range upto 1600m. The present communication reports various phenological events in the plants found in Jammudistrict of J&K.

Keywords :  Anisomeles indica, phenlogical events, protandrous, anthesis, stigma receptivity.

Volume : 11(2) pp. 189-190, 2019 Download PDF

  Seed to seed cycle in Lathyrus aphaca L.

Roohi Sharma, Noopur Sharma* and Veenu Kaul
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu–180006, India.

Received : 01.07.2019; Accepted and Published online : 02.07.2019


Lathyrus aphaca L. an annual herbaceous weed, belonging to family Fabaceae, grows naturally in wastelands, disturbed sites and along wheat in the agricultural fields (Sharma and Kachroo 1981). Despite its weedy nature, this plant possesses alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins which together impart immense economic and medicinal potential to it. The present communication reports the phenological events in L. aphaca growing in the campus of University of Jammu. A sample of forty plants (n=40) were randomly selected, tagged and monitored regularly for various phases of their life cycle. Visual observations coupled with microscopic examinations were then recorded from February to April in four consecutive years i.e., from 2015 to 2019 (Sharma R 2016, Sharma N 2018).

Keywords :  Lathyrus aphaca, papilionaceous, herkogamous, phenology, protandry, anther dehiscence.
Volume : 11(2) pp. 191, 2019 Download PDF
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